Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
The first step in patient accountability is the utilization of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing. EIA is a biochemical methodology that detects the presence of multiple drugs and/or drug metabolites using cloned analyte-specific enzyme donors. EIA offers results that are consistently reproducible; thereby allowing for more accurate and dependable outcomes.
EIA is used for qualitative detection of medications and illicit substances. The EIA methodology involves a specialized enzyme mixed with analyte-specific antibodies. If the analyte (drug) is present in the specimen, an active enzyme forms, creating a change in color that can be measured on a device called a spectrophotometric analyzer. The amount of enzyme formed is proportional to the amount of analyte that is present in the specimen.
Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)
LC-MS is an analytical chemistry methodology that syndicates the physical separation abilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the molecular weight analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS). LC-MS is a powerful technique characterized by exceptionally high sensitivity and selectivity, making it useful in many applications. The practice is used to separate, detect, and identify molecular weights of chemicals of interest in the presence of complex mixtures. LC-MS systems can be used for rapid, mass-directed purification of specific substances that are important in research, forensics, drug discovery, agriculture, medical, and scientific industries.